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Canister filters are great, aren't they? Powerful, pressurized water filtration that gets your water crystal clear and near limitless possibilities for customizing the filter media that you use can't be beaten, right? I'm inclined to agree, but there's another thing canister filter owners can mostly agree on as well: the instructions that come packaged with filters can at times be terrible, and set up is often the hardest part, especially for beginners.
How are you supposed to get your filter working correctly without instructions? Are you up to date on aquarium prep? How to set up canister filter media? Where to position your filter? Do you know how to cut your hoses, or attach them to your canister and run them to your tank? It's an involved process, and it's easy to miss a step. Thankfully, the internet (and yours truly) are here to show you how to set up a canister filter.
It should go without saying, but you'll need your filter, it's components, and all your media to get started. The exact components that come with your particular filter may vary, but in general, you'll have the following:
The standard hosing can sometimes be stiff and hard to handle. You want your tubing thick, but it should still be pliable and free of any kinks. Instead of ordering branded replacement tubing for the filter I like to go with a roll of generic vinyl hose tubing that can be cut to the length you need. It's less expensive, usually less hassle than working with the tubing that comes with your filter, and you'll have plenty of extra on hand just in case of an emergency.
Depending on your filter, it may come pre-packaged with ceramic rings as its primary biological filtration media. Some folks prefer bio-balls, however, as they degrade much slower.
Activated carbon is a popular media for chemical filtration, but I prefer adding a bit of phosphate remover as well to help control algae growth in my aquarium.
Your filter might have come with one type of foam padding for mechanical filtration, but to optimize your results, you need to have a combination of coarse foam, fine foam, and extra fine foam.
Unpack everything, get your filter's part listing, check that everything that should be there, is there. Your filter should come with everything that you need to start pumping. If your filter came bundled with media, you'd want to check those to ensure they are not damaged, and suitable for use in your filter.
Find a good spot for your filter to rest. Remember that your filter should be below your aquarium for optimal use. The ideal positioning of most filters falls between 8 inches and 4 ½ feet below your tank's water level. Check your filter's guide to find yours. You'll also want to make sure that your aquarium is filled to its maximum level, and that your hosing can follow a direct path to your tank. You don't want any loops, slack, or kinks in your tubing, so test your tubing before setup to make sure it can reach the tank with no issues.
Now we start the process of getting our media ready for the filter. Remove your filter's motor head, and make sure that all of your media baskets are inside. Depending on your filter you may have 3 or 4 baskets to fill. Gather your preferred media, sort them out by type, and get ready to install them layer by layer. If you have any gap in the bottom of your filter when the baskets are inserted, consider lining the bottom with some old ceramic rings to diffuse any waste that will collect down there.
Your mechanical media should be placed in the first tray of your filter. Why? After your filter draws water from the tank, it then flows from the first tray of the filter and then is forced to the other layers, becoming cleaner with each step. Mechanical filtration should be the first step in this process, so that when water gets to the biological and chemical stages, the filter media there won't get clogged with waste and debris. Take your 3 foam varieties: coarse, fine, and extra fine, and stack them in the tray from bottom to top in that order. Each layer will filter out smaller and smaller particles, preparing it for the next stage in the process.
You should add your preferred biological media to the second tray from the bottom. As mentioned, some tank owners like the ceramic rings, others prefer the bio-balls. Others still favor using something known as Biohome for all of their filtration needs, and skip out on mixing media altogether. You may elect to store your biological media in filter bags but there are plenty of tank owners who just line their trays with the biological media, to no ill effect.
Your 3rd and 4th trays (if you have a 4th tray) are free for you to mix things up. You're free to use them for more of the same media if that's what you feel most comfortable with. You could also experiment, and try adding some chemical media to the mix. Activated carbon is a popular choice, as are phosphate removers like PhosBan. These media often come as loose granules, so if you do choose to add them, using a filter bag is very important (outside of the bag, the granules can start to drift, and potentially clog your filter's impeller).
Now we can get our intake, the part of the filter that draws water from the tank, prepared. Some filters have a connector that attaches to the tank holding the hoses in place. Fasten the connector to the tank. Then attach your hose to the filter by loosening the intake clamp, attaching the hose to the intake valve, then tightening the clamp up again.
Run your hosing to the tank, cut your hose to length (no slack, no loops), then secure your hosing to the connector. The end of the hose should fasten to an intake tube that lowers into the tank water. If your manual doesn't have a recommendation on how far the tube should extend into the water, fall back on the 3-inch rule, which advises to keep the end of the tube at least 3 inches from the bottom of your tank.
This will be done in much the same way as our intake preparation. Set up the tank connector, attach your hose to the filter, measure & cut, then send your hose to the tank. In this case, however, our output nozzle should rest at least an inch under the water line, it doesn't have to lead all the way to the bottom of the tank.
This can vary from filter to filter. In general, however, you will want to check that everything is connected securely, and in the proper place. Make sure that your valves are open so that the filter can draw and then expel water from your tank. Some filters will require that you have water in the canister to begin, so ensure the necessary amount is in the chamber before starting. When you are satisfied that everything is ready, plug in your filter.
If it has an auto-prime feature, the filter will run for a bit to get the water flowing, then turn off to force excess amounts of air from the canister, it will then run continuously until you turn it off. If you have a priming button for your filter, you may need to pump that a few times to get it going.
Observe your filter in action for a while, and make sure everything's running smoothly. Some filters might make some rattling noises during start up. If these noises persist, however, you might want to check to make sure no debris is clogging any of the filter components. Watch your flow rate. If it seems to be lower than expected, you may have to tighten your hose connections, or remove obstructions from your tubing.
Wasn't that fun? Hopefully you're now a bit more clued in on how to set up your canister filter, and some basic operational procedures. As I mentioned, the instructions that come with a lot of filters aren't always the clearest or easiest to follow, so it's helpful to have a step-by-step guide that can break out some of the hard-to-decipher language into easier terms.
What do you think? Were these steps helpful in breaking down the filter setup process? Any extra steps or tips you think should be included? Let me know your thoughts in the comments, and remember to share the article if you found it useful!
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